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@charlesemmerson. “Tutte le mie esperienze sono comunicazioni per ritrovare il senso del mondo” Gabriele d’Annunzio Poeta, drammaturgo, militare, esteta, politico e soldato Gabriele d’Annunzio è stato uno degli uomini più influenti del ventesimo secolo. What should be noted is that although many of D’Annunzio’s followers became fascists, others, like De Ambris, were antifascists. Ask An Italian: Why Does Coronavirus Spread More In Northern Italy? Fiume. During the enterprise there was a bid to combine individualism with communitarianism in a new socio-political order, culminating with the writing of the Carta del Carnaro (Carnaro Charter). századok fordulójának egyik legjelentősebb olasz költője volt, vizuális-naturalista költeményeivel iskolát teremtett, prózai műveit is inkább erőteljes költői egyénisége lényegítette át. Fiume briefly became a free state, before returning to Yugoslavia in 1924.

Admirers would often write such speeches down, parading through the streets with his pages. The crucible of war became the crucible of an imperfect peace, in which culture, politics and ideology were all thrown together, old verities trashed and new theories born. Tara Isabella Burton is a contributing editor at The American Interest and a columnist at Religion News Service. Moreover, the proposed League was a forerunner of the anti-globalization movement and post-WW2 Third-Worldism. It is clear that the poet believed that Italian culture would become dominant in the city, but for its intrinsic force, and not through a top-down imposition. D’Annunzio was eventually turfed out of Fiume over Christmas 1920, when Italians had better things to do than worry about a town on the other side of the Adriatic and the newspapers were in holiday mode. Tel. This made up the entire activity of the government. America’s man on the ground noted the appearance of posters proclaiming ‘Italy or Death’ over the spring and summer (and Italian soldiers putting some of them up). This is a stark contrast to the corporations of Fascist Italy, which regimented the proletariat and enforced a systematic control of the means of production. D’Annunzio himself had never really bought into the idea of peace. But it was better organised.

The war, it turned out, had not really ended in 1918 at all. D'Annunzio's Fiume venture was not only an episode of usual nationalism, but also a generational revolt against liberalism, diplomacy and conventions. info@vittoriale.it. An Italian general loyal to Rome half-heartedly ordered D’Annunzio to stop on the road into town. It is hard to imagine a similar ‘poet-warrior’ pulling off such an audacious move in modern times. (The train stopped wherever there was any demand at all for a speech.) On the same day the Italian poet entered Fiume, Adolf Hitler attended his first meeting of the German Workers’ Party in Munich (to take notes for his boss in the army’s propaganda department). And d’Annunzio, the “divine leader,” presided over it all. Civilization, he argued, had become feminized and soft, but in this idealized new Rome, men could become fierce warriors once more. Gabriele D’Annunzio, 1924-től Montenevoso hercege (Pescara, 1863, március 12. In Fiume, though, Gabriele D’Annunzio revealed the man that he really was, a man far more controversial than the sexual deviant he made himself seem to be: a fascist. D’Annunzio’s influence on fascism has made him a controversial figure in Italy: at once lauded for his poetic talent and derided for his politics. A local Croatian club was sacked by rioters, and Croatian teens allegedly shot by police for no reason other than failing to show sufficient respect. Given the extraordinary character of its leading light, the drugs and sex and booze involved in the Fiume adventure, and its mixed result, the episode is sometimes taken as a somewhat comic footnote to the chaotic history of Europe in the crucible years from 1917 to 1923. Although this event may seem like one of the many footnotes of history, it actually had a significant impact on the contemporary world that should not be underestimated. Gabriele d’Annunzio, aged 26, at a costume ball. The black uniform of the “arditi” was adopted by Mussolini’s Blackshirts (so too their experiments with castor oil). Karya-karya sastra D'Annunzio mengikuti aliran Dekadentisme. After a necromantic ceremony with his mistress in a cemetery in Venice he set out to conquer Fiume, and succeeded without any trouble to speak of.

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He saw the window of a restaurant smashed when a rumour spread through the city that a French officer was dining there (the French were considered to have sold out Italy in Paris). On 12 September 1919, the rubber-faced poet-aviator Gabriele D’Annunzio, Italian nationalism’s propagandist-in-chief, swooped into the port of Fiume (now Rijeka) on the Adriatic and claimed it for Italy. Italian troops on the streets of Fiume, now Rijeka in Croatia, during the military occupation of the city. Here are some tips. Filippo Marinetti, the moustachioed Italian poet who before the war had advocated a new cult of speed, symbolised by aeroplanes and car crashes, paid a visit. The Carnaro Charter was also unique because music was made a key governing principle and state-subsidised orchestras were due to be established in every municipality. ‘For any race of noble origin, culture is the best of all weapons.’, ’65. Since December 2018 he has been the secretary of the Institute for a Greater Europe, a think tank that produces well-informed commentaries, research pieces and policy briefs on issues affecting the area from Portugal to Russia. Nationalist papers reported the general to have been entirely won over by this act of bravery, quoting his enthusiastic response: ‘Great Poet, I hope that your dream will be fulfilled, and that I may shout with you “Viva Fiume Italiana!”’. Undoubtedly Fiume might have blown up without D’Annunzio. According to Bey’s account: Artists, bohemians, adventurers, anarchists (D’Annunzio corresponded with Malatesta), fugitives and Stateless refugees, homosexuals, military dandies (the uniform was black with pirate skull-&-crossbones, later stolen by the SS), and crank reformers of every stripe (including Buddhists, Theosophists and Vedantists) began to show up at Fiume in droves. Selama Perang Dunia I, D'Annunzio berubah dari tokoh sastra menjadi pahlawan perang nasional. Money flowed in from supporters in the rest of Italy, along with fresh nationalist recruits hoping to catch a bit of the excitement. The fact that D’Annunzio did not succeed just meant that others had to do a better job.

Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook, Twitter (@NYTopinion) and Instagram. Ia kemudian mendirikan Perwalian Italia Carnaro di Fiume yang berusia pendek dan di wilayah tersebut ia menjabat sebagai seorang Duce. This association wanted to unite the archaic and the future in order to avoid a petty and decadent modernity. Review our Privacy policy to learn how to disable cookies. She is at work on her next book “Strange Rites: New Religions for a Godless World.”. olasz költő, író, esszéista, publicista, politikus. He was unconvinced by the worship of Woodrow Wilson the peacemaker which swelled across Europe after the armistice. Political opponents were routinely humiliated: The “arditi” pioneered the punitive use of castor oil, a noxious laxative, which they forced their enemies to drink. The womanizing, profligate Italian poet Gabriele d’Annunzio, who had become a hero of World War I by airdropping his own propagandistic poetry over Vienna, marched into the Hapsburg city of Fiume (now Rijeka in Croatia) and declared himself its leader. D’Annunzio’s Fiume was also the centre of a project spearheaded by Kochnitsky to form the League of Fiume, an anti-League of Nations that was supposed “to rally the forces of all oppressed peoples, nations, races, etc… into a compact formation” in order “to fight and triumph over the oppressors and imperialists.” The Fiuman foreign emissaries thus made contact with representatives of various downtrodden nationalities, including Turks, Egyptians, and even Irish. Jenderal Gabriele D'Annunzio, Pangeran Montenevoso, Adipati Gallese (lahir 12 Maret 1863 – 1 Maret 1938), kadang-kadang dieja d'Annunzio, adalah seorang penulis, penyair, jurnalis, penggubah sandiwara Italia.Ia adalah tokoh sastra Italia yang penting dari tahun 1889 hingga 1910 dan kemudian terjun ke dunia politik dari tahun 1914 hingga 1924. Mussolini knew how to put such things to use for his own ends. Fiume’s postwar status had been in dispute for months. Copyright 2020 © Italics Magazine. Poeta, drammaturgo, militare, esteta, politico e soldato Gabriele d’Annunzio è stato uno degli uomini più influenti del ventesimo secolo. But it was d’Annunzio’s canny ability to transform politics into an aesthetic — even religious — experience that proved most prescient. Mussolini published the letter in his newspaper with the unflattering bits taken out. He took the mantra of “life as art” and applied it to the political sphere. Ia juga dipengaruhi oleh filsuf Jerman Friedrich Nietzsche. Se ne va Giurati – capo di gabinetto e unico elemento serio – e viene sostituito da Alceste De Ambris, un sindacalista. And it kept boiling for several years more, reshaping the continent and sowing fresh anger, new fears and new ideologies deep into Europe’s very fabric.

The Sex-Crazed Poet Strongman Who (Briefly) Built an Empire, Henri Le Lieure/Alinari, via Getty Images. While waiting for an eventual annexation, D’Annunzio and his colleagues remained in charge of the Adriatic port city until they were defeated by Italian regular forces in December 1920 and subsequently forced to leave. The city became a haven for all kinds of misfits and miscreants: occultists, vegetarians, futurists, practitioners of free love. When they continued to condemn his project, he even formed an Anti-League of Nations that reached out to ‘oppressed peoples’ around the world. For Italian nationalists, Fiume was part of the “irredenti,” or unredeemed, territories: Italian lands waiting to be claimed by Italians. It was merely transmuted into a new set of civil wars and revolutions, conflicts and convulsions, of which the conquest of Fiume was the most theatrical.

One hundred years ago this fall, a celebrity showman became a strongman. He was also the founder of the Yoga ‘Union of Free Spirits’, an association which held discussions open to all on the abolition of money and free love among other subjects. Con Empresa de Fiume (Impresa di Fiume, en italiano) se entiende un evento histórico en el cual Gabriele D'Annunzio guio a un grupo de cerca de 2600 rebeldes del Regio Esercito —los Granaderos de Cerdeña— a Ronchi, cerca de Monfalcone, en Fiume (actual Rijeka), donde D'Annunzio proclamó la anexión al Reino de Italia de la ciudad el 12 de septiembre de 1919. He was eventually ousted when the Italian navy decided to bombard the city. And long, rambling speeches from various balconies – beyond parody, beyond art, beyond meaning anyone could discern, but delivered with fantastic passion and style.

[3] Ia dikaitkan dengan pasukan elit Arditi dan turut serta dalam berbagai pertempuran, termasuk Penerbangan di atas Wina. The poet theatrically offered up his medal-covered chest to the general and dared him to shoot him on the spot. The takeover of the Fiume did start as a nationalist endeavor as it was planned by Italian nationalists in order to strike a blow against the international community by presenting the city’s incorporation into Italy as a fait accompli that would lead to an anti-parliamentary revolution in the country. But it took the poet himself to crystallise all this into a national and ultimately an international crisis. L’idea di conquistare Fiume per poi annetterla all’Italia iniziò a germinare nella testa di Gabriele D’Annunzio sul finire dell’ottobre 1918.

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