Linguists and anthropologists, particularly sociolinguists, ethnolinguists, and linguistic anthropologists have specialized in studying how ways of speaking vary between speech communities. Quine.. Change also happens in the grammar of languages as discourse patterns such as idioms or particular constructions become grammaticalized. In many polysynthetic languages, verbs cross-reference their subjects and objects.  Word order type is relevant as a typological parameter, because basic word order type corresponds with other syntactic parameters, such as the relative order of nouns and adjectives, or of the use of prepositions or postpositions. In "On the Mode of Communication of Cholera," author John Snow argues that cholera spreads by person-to-person transmission. An example of such a language is Turkish, where for example, the word evlerinizden, or "from your houses", consists of the morphemes, ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from.  It is distinguished by the property of recursivity: for example, a noun phrase can contain another noun phrase (as in "[[the chimpanzee]'s lips]") or a clause can contain another clause (as in "[I see [the dog is running]]"). Hakka, Cantonese and Mandarin are, for example, often classified as "dialects" of Chinese, even though they are more different from each other than Swedish is from Norwegian. , When studying the way in which words and signs are used, it is often the case that words have different meanings, depending on the social context of use. Two friends decided to go with him to the library to find a magazine. Language change may be motivated by "language internal" factors, such as changes in pronunciation motivated by certain sounds being difficult to distinguish aurally or to produce, or through patterns of change that cause some rare types of constructions to drift towards more common types. Languages whose relationships have not been established are unclassified.  This structuralist view of language was first introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure, and his structuralism remains foundational for many approaches to language.. However, any precise estimate depends on the arbitrary distinction (dichotomy) between languages and dialect. Functional theories of grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions, and understand the grammatical structures of language to be the result of an adaptive process by which grammar was "tailored" to serve the communicative needs of its users. Syntax also includes the rules for how complex sentences are structured by grouping words together in units, called phrases, that can occupy different places in a larger syntactic structure. A set of 10 amendments protecting freedoms C.) A record of the men who signed the constitution. Twentieth century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. , Theories about the origin of language differ in regard to their basic assumptions about what language is. Word classes can be "open" if new words can continuously be added to the class, or relatively "closed" if there is a fixed number of words in a class.
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